Unit – I

  • Forensic Science: Definition, History & Development, Scope, Ethics in Forensic Science
  • Physical Evidence: Nature, Types, Search methods, Collection, Preservation, Packing & Forwarding of Physical & Trace evidence for forensic analyses, Chain of Custody
  • Crime Scene: Nature, Types, Preservation of Scene of Crime
  • Criminal Investigations: Unnatural deaths, Criminal assaults, Sexual offences, Poisoning, Vehicular accidents
  • Courts: Types, powers and jurisdiction, Admissibility of evidence in Courts, Definition of Experts, Provisions in Cr.P.C.,1973 & Indian Evidence Act relating to experts & their reports; Court Procedures pertaining to Expert Testimony & Witness
  • Organization of Forensic Science Laboratories of Centre and State, NCRB and NICFS
  • Fundamental Rights: Right of Equality (Articles 14 to 18) and Right of Freedom (Articles 19 to 22) as per Constitution of India
  • Criminal Profiling: Profile of victim and culprit, its role in crime investigation, Lie detection (Polygraphy), Narco analysis, Brain mapping, scope and limitations
  • Concept of quality control management in Forensic institutions

Unit – II

  • Microscopy: Polarizing, Comparison, Stereoscopic, Fluorescent and Electron Microscopes
  • Spectrophotometry: UV, Visible, IR, Raman, Atomic absorption, Emission
  • Neutron Activation Analysis
  • X – rays and x-ray based techniques such as XRD, XRF
  • Mass Spectroscopy
  • Chromatographic Techniques: TLC, GLC, HPLC, HPTLC
  • Hyphenated Techniques: GC-MS, LC-MS, IR-MS and ICP-MS
  • Electrophoresis: High and Low voltage electrophoresis, Immunoelectrophoresis
  • Immunoassays: Principle, Types, Techniques and applications

Unit – III

  • Detection and Identification of Blood stains
  • Determination of Species of Origin
  • Blood Group Systems
  • Techniques of Determination of Blood groups of Blood Stains
  • Detection of Seminal and other body fluids and their Blood Grouping, Red cells Enzymes, Serum Proteins of forensic significance
  • Disputed Paternity & Maternity
  • DNA: Structure, DNA as genetic marker, DNA Extraction and Profiling Techniques
  • DNA Phenotyping and RNA Profiling & their applications
  • Wild life Forensics: Wild life (Protection) Act,1972, Scope, Evidences and Identification

Unit – IV

  • Analysis of Ethyl alcohol in beverages, liquors, biological fluids and breath
  • Analysis of Methanol and Denaturants
  • Illicit liquors
  • Analysis of Chemicals in Trap Cases
  • Metabolism and Chemical examination of: Insecticides & Pesticides, Tranquillizers & Sedatives, Hypnotics Stimulants, Narcotics, Opiates, Drugs of abuse; Analyses of above and their Toxicity
  • Plant poisons
  • Metallic Poisons
  • Extraction, Isolation & Clean-up procedures, Identification of common poisons from viscera, tissues and body fluids

Unit – V

  • Fire arms: Types, Classification, Ammunition and their Compositions
  • Forensic examination of Firearms, Ammunition, Firearms’ projectiles (Bullets, Shots, Slug etc.), Shell case
  • Gunshot residues analysis
  • Concept of Velocity, Penetration, Dispersion, Ricochet, Accidental Discharge, Determination of Range in firearm cases
  • Examination of Country made firearms
  • Basics of Internal, External and Terminal Ballistics
  • Tool marks: Meaning, Types and Examination
  • Restoration of Erased Markings on Metal Surfaces

Unit – VI

  • Fire and Arson: Analyses of Petroleum Products and other incendiary materials
  • Explosives: Definition, Types and Analyses
  • Bombs: Country made bombs, Improvised Explosive Devices ( IEDs ) and their examination
  • Investigation in Explosion and Arson related cases
  • Photography: Types, application in criminal investigation & Forensic evidence examination
  • Unit – VII
  • Hair & Fibers: Nature, Types, Structure and Examination
  • Pollens and Diatoms: Their application in Forensic investigation
  • Dust & Soil: Nature, Types, Forensic Examination
  • Paint, Lacquer & Varnishes: Nature, composition and forensic examination
  • Glass: Composition, Types, Fractures, Examination
  • Cement, Mortar and Concrete: General Composition, Forensic Analysis
  • Computer Forensics: Introduction, Types of Computer crimes, Digital evidence- Seizure, Acquisition and Forensic examination
  • Mobile Phone Forensics

Unit – VIII

  • Fingerprints: History, Characteristics, Types, Classification, Preservation, Development, Lifting and Comparison, Examination of Chance Prints, Computerization of Fingerprints, AFIS
  • Track Marks: Foot Prints, Shoe Prints, Tire Marks, Their Preservation & Casting, Comparison, Skid marks. Gait pattern
  • Biometric Systems of Identification and its relevance
  • Voice Analysis: Introduction, Significance, Structure of Human Voice apparatus, Voice spectrography, Voice analysis, Legal aspects and limitations

Unit – IX

  • Documents: Definition, Types, Preliminary examination of documents
  • Reproduction of documents through photographic and mechanical means and their examination
  • Examination of Alterations such as Erasures, Obliterations & Additions
  • Indentations, Secret writings and Charred documents
  • Inks, Papers and their scientific examinations with modern methods
  • Age of documents
  • Examination of Typescripts, Printed matter including currency notes and lottery tickets. Mechanical impressions
  • Hand writings: Class and Individual characteristics of Handwritings, Factors affecting handwritings, Standard samples for comparison, Comparison of hand-written texts
  • Anonymous and disguised writings
  • Identification of hand writings, signatures, detection of forged signature and forgeries
  • Examination of Credit Cards and Similar materials

Unit –X

  • Modes & Manner of deaths, Sexual offences and its medicolegal importance, Amendments in law related to sexual offences
  • Post – mortem examination and Post – mortem changes, Estimation of time since death
  • Injuries & Wounds: Types, Medicolegal importance, Gunshot wounds
  • Determination of Species of Origin, Sex, Age, Stature, and individual identification through skeletal remains
  • Identification through Skull superimposition and facial reconstruction
  • Human dentition, Type of teeth, determination of Age, Bite marks
  • Forensic Entomology: Introduction, Insects of forensic importance, Insects on Carrion, Forensic applications


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